Russia carries out and encourages ‘active measures’ in Europe to destabilise and confuse governments and societies. However, these are often opportunistic and shaped by local conditions. There is no grand strategy, beyond weakening the EU and NATO and creating a more conducive environment for itself.
* Galeotti, M. (2017). Controlling Chaos: How Russia manages its political war in Europe. European Council of Foreign Relations. ECFR. ‒ http://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/controlling_chaos_how_russia_manages_its_political_war_in_europe